第三篇 希伯來書作為利未記的解釋

Hebrews as an Exposition of Leviticus

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讀經∶來一2~3、8,二10、17,四14~15,十5~10,十三8

壹 利未記是一卷預表的書;對基督最細緻、最詳盡的預表乃是在利未記裡:

I. Leviticus is a book of types, a book of typology; the most fine and detailed types of Christ are in Leviticus:

一 基督奇妙且包羅,單憑明言不足以啟示祂;預表實際上就是一幅幅的圖畫,也是需要的。

A. Christ is wonderful and all-inclusive, and plain words are not adequate to reveal Him; types, which are actually pictures, are also necessary.

二 利未記既是一卷預表的書,就需要加以解釋;使徒保羅在希伯來書裡解釋利未記─來一1~3。

B. Because Leviticus is a book of types, there is the need for it to be expounded; the apostle Paul expounded Leviticus in the Epistle to the Hebrews—1:1-3.

貳 希伯來書是利未記的解釋─來九14、25~26,十5~12,十三11~13:

II. Hebrews is an exposition of Leviticus—Heb. 9:14, 25-26; 10:5-12; 13:11-13:

一 我們要對利未記有正確的領會,就需要看見利未記與希伯來書之間的關聯。

A. In order to have the proper understanding of Leviticus, we need to see the connection between Leviticus and Hebrews.

二 在希伯來書裡,我們看見利未記一至七章裡供物之預表的實際─來十5~10:

B. In the Epistle to the Hebrews we have the reality of the types of the offerings in chapters 1 through 7 of Leviticus—Heb. 10:5-10:

1 贖罪祭表徵基督是為著神子民之罪的供物;我們的罪由基督作我們的贖罪祭所對付─利四,來九26。

1. The sin offering signifies Christ as the offering for the sin of God's people; our sin has been dealt with by Christ as our sin offering—Lev. 4; Heb. 9:26.

2 整個贖罪祭牲,包括皮和所有的肉,連頭帶腿,並內臟與糞,都要在營外燒了─利四11~12、21:

2. The whole sin offering, including its skin and all its flesh, with its head, legs, and its inward parts and its dung, was burned outside the camp—Lev. 4:11-12, 21:

a 這表徵基督作贖罪祭,在猶太宗教之外忍受凌辱─來十三11~13。

a. This signifies that Christ as the sin offering suffered reproach outside the Jewish religion—Heb. 13:11-13.

b 基督是在耶路撒冷之外被釘死的,耶路撒冷被視為代表猶太宗教組織的營─13節。

b. Christ was crucified outside Jerusalem, which is considered a camp representing the Jewish religious organization—v. 13.

3 基督來頂替利未記裡供物的預表─來十5~12:

3. Christ came to replace the types of the offerings in Leviticus—Heb. 10:5-10:

a 基督作為獨一的祭物與供物,除去舊約所有的祭物與供物,立定祂自己作新約的祭物與供物─7~10節。

a. As the unique sacrifice and offering, Christ took away all the sacrifices and offerings of the old testament and established Himself as the new testament sacrifice and offerings—vv. 7-10.

b 基督來作真正的祭物與活的供物;祂在十字架上獻上自己,來作一切供物的實際─九14、25~26,十11~12。

b. Christ came to be the real sacrifice and living offering, who offered Himself on the cross as the reality of all the offerings—9:14, 25-26; 10:11-12.

叄 利未記的中心思想乃是:宇宙般包羅萬有並無窮無盡的基督,對神並對祂的子民乃是一切;希伯來書作為利未記的解釋,啟示基督奇妙、奧祕、包羅萬有的人位─來一2~3,四14~15,十5~10,十三8:

III. The central thought of Leviticus is that the universal, all-inclusive, inexhaustible Christ is everything to God and to God's people; as an exposition of Leviticus, the Epistle to the Hebrews reveals the marvelous, mysterious, and all-inclusive person of Christ—1:2-3; 4:14-15; 10:5-10; 13:8:

一 在利未記這卷書本身,我們無法看見我們所獻上並享受作供物的基督是何等偉大、超絕、奇妙、包羅萬有且無窮無盡;我們要有包羅萬有之基督的啟示,就需要來看希伯來書裡所啟示之基督的各方面。

A. In the book of Leviticus itself we cannot see how great, excellent, wonderful, all-inclusive, and inexhaustible is the Christ whom we offer and enjoy as the offerings; for a revelation of the all-inclusiveness of Christ, we need to consider the aspects of Christ that are revealed in Hebrews.

二 子基督是希伯來書的中心和重點─一2~3,十三8。

B. Christ the Son is the center, the focus, of the book of Hebrews—1:2-3; 13:8.

三 在新約,神是在子裡,就是在子的人位裡說話─一2:

C. In the New Testament, God speaks in the Son, in the person of the Son—1:2:

1 子就是神自己,是彰顯出來的神─8節。

1. The Son is God Himself, God expressed—v. 8.

2 希伯來書的精髓乃是神在子裡的說話─2節。

2. The essence of the book of Hebrews is God's speaking in the Son—v. 2.

3 父神是隱藏的,子神是顯出的;子作為神的話和神的說話,已經將神表明出來,使神得著完滿的彰顯、說明和解釋─約一1、18。

3. God the Father is hidden; God the Son is expressed; as the Word of God and the speaking of God, the Son has declared the Father with a full expression, explanation, and definition of Him—John 1:1, 18.

四 在神格里,子是神榮耀的光輝,是神本質的印像─來一3:

D. In the Godhead the Son is the effulgence of God's glory and the impress of His substance—Heb. 1:3:

1 榮耀是外在的彰顯,本質是內在的素質:

1. The glory is the outward expression, and the substance is the inward

a 說到榮耀是神外在的彰顯,子是神榮耀的光輝,是父榮耀的照明─3節。

a. With respect to glory as the outward expression of God, the Son is the effulgence of God's glory, the brightness of the Father's glory—v. 3.

b 說到本質是神內在的素質,子是神本質的印像,是父所是的彰顯。

b. With respect to substance as the inward essence of God, the Son is the impress of God's substance, the expression of what the Father is.

2 子是神榮耀的光輝,是神本質的印像,意思是說,子是神臨到我們─3節,約一1、14、18。

2. For the Son to be the effulgence of God's glory and the impress of God's substance means that the Son is God coming to us—v. 3; John 1:1, 14, 18.

五 在神的創造裡,子是創造者、維持者和承受者─來一2~3、10:

E. In God's creation the Son is the Creator, the Upholder, and the Heir—Heb. 1:2-3, 10:

1 已過,萬有是在祂裡面並藉著祂而有的,也是為著歸於祂而有的─2節,約一3,林前八6,西一16。

1. In the past all things came into existence in Him, through Him, and unto Him—v. 2; John 1:3; 1 Cor. 8:6; Col. 1:16.

2 現今,子用祂大能的話維持萬有,萬有也在祂裡面得以維繫─來一3,西一17。

2. In the present the Son upholds all things by the word of His power, and all things cohere in Him—Heb. 1:3; Col. 1:17.

六 子廢除了魔鬼;及至時候滿足,子就為童女所生,來成為肉體,好藉著在十字架上受死,廢除魔鬼─來二14,約一14,羅八3,加四4。

F. The Son destroyed the devil; in the fullness of time, the Son came to become flesh by being born of a virgin so that He might destroy the devil though His death on the cross—Heb. 2:14; John 1:14; Rom. 8:3; Gal. 4:4.

七 基督是我們進入榮耀之完滿救恩的創始者,元帥─來二10:

G. Christ is the Author, the Captain, of our full salvation unto glory—Heb. 2:10:

1 神永遠的目標,是要領祂許多的兒子進榮耀裡去,就是進入神的彰顯裡─10節。

1. God's eternal goal is to bring His many sons into glory, into the expression of God—v. 10.

2 身為元帥,基督已領先進入榮耀;我們這些跟從祂的人正在同一條路上,也要被帶進神為我們所命定同樣的榮耀裡─林前二7,帖前二12。

2. As the Captain, Christ took the lead to enter into glory, and we, His followers, are taking the same way to be brought into the same glory, which was ordained by God for us—1 Cor. 2:7; 1 Thes. 2:12.

八 基督是使徒和神家的建設者─來三1~6:

H. Christ is the Apostle and the Builder of God's house—Heb. 3:1-6:

1 主耶穌是我們的使徒,就是受差遣,從神並同神到我們這裡來的一位;祂同著神到我們這裡,與我們分享神,使我們有分於祂神聖的生命和性情─約六46,八16、19,十10下。

1. The Lord Jesus is our Apostle, the One who was sent to us from God and with God; He came to us with God to share God with us so that we might partake of His divine life and nature—John 6:46; 8:16, 29; 10:10b.

2 基督在祂的人性裡是神家(神建築)的材料,在祂的神性裡是建設者─來三2~6。

2. In His humanity Christ is the material for God's house, God's building, and in His divinity He is the Builder—Heb. 3:2-6.

九 基督是憐憫、忠信、尊大的大祭司─二17,三1,四14~15,五5、10,六20,七26~八1:

I. Christ is the merciful, faithful, and great High Priest—2:17; 3:1; 4:14-15; 5:5, 10; 6:20; 7:26—8:1:

1 基督能成為憐憫忠信的大祭司,因為祂是神的兒子,具有神性,也是人的兒子,具有人性;祂是憐憫的,與祂是人相合;祂是忠信的,與祂是神相合─一8,二5~18。

1. Christ is able to be a merciful and faithful High Priest because He is both the Son of God with divinity and the Son of Man with humanity; His being merciful corresponds to His being a man, and His being faithful corresponds to His being God—1:8; 2:5-18.

2 基督是我們尊大的大祭司,在祂的人位、工作和所達到的事上是尊大的;祂經過了諸天,並且能同情我們的軟弱─四14~15。

2. As our great High Priest, Christ is great in His person, in His work, and in His attainment; He has passed through the heavens, and He sympathizes with our weaknesses—4:14-15.

十 基督是已進入幔內的先鋒─六19~20:

J. Christ is the Forerunner, who has entered within the veil—6:19-20:

1 主耶穌所進入的諸天,就是今日幔內的至聖所─19節。

1. The heavens into which the Lord Jesus entered are today the Holy of Holies within the veil—v. 19.

2 主耶穌作先鋒,領先經過風暴的海,進入屬天的避風港,照麥基洗德的等次,為我們作了大祭司─20節。

2. As the Forerunner, the Lord Jesus took the lead to pass through the stormy sea and enter into the heavenly haven to be the High Priest for us according to the order of Melchizedek—v. 20.

十一 基督是更美之約的保證─七22:

K. Christ is the surety of a better covenant—7:22:

1 二十二節的“保證”一辭,意指基督將自己質押給新約,並給我們眾人。─引用經文

1. In verse 22 the word surety means that Christ has pledged Himself to the new covenant and to all of us.

2 祂是保證人,擔保祂要作成所需的一切,使新約得以成就。

2. He is the Bondsman, the guarantee, that He will do everything necessary for the fulfillment of the new covenant.

十二 基督是能拯救我們到底的大祭司─25~26節:L. Christ is the High Priest who is able to save us to the uttermost—vv. 25-26:>

1 基督作我們的大祭司,為我們代求,承擔我們的案件─25節。

1. Christ as our High Priest undertakes our case by interceding for us—v. 25.

2 基督為我們顯在神前,為我們禱告,使我們可以蒙拯救,並完全被帶進神永遠的定旨─26節。

2. Christ appears before God on our behalf and prays for us that we may be saved and brought fully into God's eternal purpose—v. 26.

十三 基督是諸天裡的執事─八1~2:

M. Christ is the Minister in the heavens—8:1-2:

1 基督是真帳幕(天上帳幕)的執事,把天(不僅指地方,也指生命的情形)供應到我們裡面,使我們有屬天的生命和能力,在地上過屬天的生活,正如祂從前在地上一樣。

1. Christ, as a Minister of the true (heavenly) tabernacle, ministers heaven (which is not only a place but also a condition of life) into us so that we may have the heavenly life and power to live a heavenly life on earth, as He did while He was here.

2 凡基督這屬天的執事所執行的,祂作為那靈都應用到我們身上;凡祂所供應的,都傳輸到我們靈裡─林前六17。

2. Whatever Christ carries out as the heavenly Minister, He applies to us as the Spirit; whatever He ministers is transmitted into our spirit—1 Cor. 6:17.

十四 基督是進入諸天之上的至聖所並得到永遠救贖的一位─來九11~12:

N. Christ is the One who entered into the Holy of Holies in the heavens and obtained an eternal redemption—Heb. 9:11-12:

1 基督的救贖是在十字架上完成的,但乃是等到祂進入天上的至聖所,就是將祂贖罪的血帶去獻在神面前,祂才從神得到有永遠功效的救贖─西一20,來九11~12。

1. Christ accomplished redemption on the cross, but it was not until He entered into the heavenly Holy of Holies, that is, when He brought His redeeming blood to offer it before God, that He obtained the redemption that has an eternal effect—Col. 1:20; Heb. 9:11-12.

2 因著基督作神的羔羊,在十字架上一次永遠地為罪獻上自己作祭物,除去了世人的罪,祂灑在天上帳幕裡的血,就為我們成功了永遠的救贖;因此,我們得贖乃是用基督的寶血─約一29,來九14,十12,十二24,彼前一18~19。

2. Since Christ as the Lamb of God took away the sin of the world by offering Himself once for all on the cross as the sacrifice for sins, His blood, which He sprinkled in the heavenly tabernacle, has accomplished eternal redemption for us; thus, we have been redeemed with the precious blood of Christ—John 1:29; Heb. 9:14; 10:12; 12:24; 1 Pet. 1:18-19.

3 基督是如今為我們顯在神面前的一位─來九24。

3. Christ is the One appearing now before the face of God for us—Heb. 9:24.

十五 基督是那又新又活之路的開創者─十19~20:

O. Christ is the Initiator of a new and living way for us—10:19-20:

1 基督作為那又新又活之路的開創者,開路使我們得以藉著祂的血,從幔子(就是祂的肉體)經過,進入至聖所─20節。

1. As the Initiator of a new and living way, Christ opened the way for us to enter the Holy of Holies by His blood through the veil, His flesh—v. 20.

2 藉著基督這更美的祭物,我們得以坦然進入至聖所─九23,十19。

2. Through the better sacrifices of Christ, we have boldness to enter into the Holy of Holies—9:23; 10:19.

3 今天雖然至聖所是在主耶穌所在的天上(九12、24),但在十章十九節,至聖所是指在我們靈裡的至聖所;我們的靈是神的住處,是神和基督居住的內室─弗二22。

3. Although the Holy of Holies today is in heaven, where the Lord Jesus is (9:12, 24), in 10:19 the Holy of Holies refers to the Holy of Holies in our spirit; our spirit is God's residence, the chamber in which God and Christ dwell—Eph. 2:22.

十六 在利未記裡所預表,並在希伯來書裡所啟示之奇妙、包羅萬有的基督,是我們永遠的分─來十三8:

P. The wonderful, all-inclusive Christ typified in Leviticus and revealed in Hebrews is our eternal portion—Heb. 13:8:

1 希伯來書所啟示基督的各方面是無窮無盡的。

1. All the aspects of Christ revealed in Hebrews are inexhaustible.

2 這樣一位奇妙、包羅萬有的基督是我們永遠的分,給我們享受。

2. This wonderful, all-inclusive Christ is our eternal portion for us to enjoy.

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